OAU Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa (Bamako Convention)
Adopted 30 January 1991 Bamako, Mali
The Parties to this Convention,
1. Mindful of the growing threat to human health and the environment posed by the increased generation and the complexity of hazardous wastes,
2. Further mindful that the most effective way of protecting human health and the environment from the dangers posed by such wastes is the reduction of their generation to a minimum in terms of quantity and/or hazard potential,
3. Aware of the risk of damage to human health and the environment caused by transboundary movements of hazardous wastes,
4. Reiterating that States should ensure that the generator should carry out his responsibilities with regard to the transport and disposal of hazardous wastes in a manner that is consistent with the protection of human health and environment, whatever the place of disposal,
5. Recalling relevant chapters of the Charter of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) on environmental protection, the African Charter for Human and Peoples’ Rights, Chapter IX of the Lagos Plan of Action and other Recommendations adopted by the Organisation of African Unity on the environment,
6. Further recognizing the sovereignty of States to ban the importation into, and the transit through, their territory, of hazardous wastes and substances for human health and environmental reasons,
7. Recognizing also the increasing mobilization in Africa for the prohibition of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal in African countries,
8. Convinced that hazardous wastes should, as far as is compatible with environmentally sound and efficient management, be disposed in the State where they were generated,
9. Convinced that the effective control and minimization of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes will act as an incentive, in Africa and elsewhere, for the reduction of the volume of the generation of such wastes,
10. Noting that a number of international and regional agreements deal with the problem of the protection and preservation of the environment with regard to the transit of dangerous goods,
11. Taking into account the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972), the Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes adopted by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) by Decision 14/30 of 17 June, 1987, the Recommendations of the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (formulated in 1957 and updated biennially), the Charter of Human Rights, relevant recommendations, declarations, instruments and regulations adopted within the United Nations System, the relevant articles of the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal which allow for the establishment of regional agreements which may be equal to or stronger than its own provisions, Article 39 of the Lome’ IV Convention relating to the international movement of hazardous wastes and radioactive wastes, African intergovernmental organisations and the work and studies done within other international and regional organisations,
12. Mindful of the spirit, principles, aims and functions of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources adopted by the African Heads of State and Government in Algiers (1968) and the World Charter for Nature adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its Thirty-seventh Session (1982) as the rule of ethics in respect of the protection of the human environment and the conservation of natural resources,
13. Concerned by the problem of transboundary traffic in hazardous wastes,
14. Recognizing the need to promote the development of clean production methods, including clean technologies, for the sound management of hazardous wastes produced in Africa, in particular, to avoid, minimize and eliminate the generation of such wastes,
15. Recognizing also that where necessary hazardous wastes should be transported in accordance with relevant international conventions and recommendations,
16. Determined to protect, by strict control, the human health of the African population and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from the generation of hazardous wastes,
17. Affirming a commitment also to responsibly address the problem of hazardous wastes originating within the Continent of Africa,
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
For the purpose of this Convention:
1. “Wastes” are substances or materials which are disposed of, or are intended to be disposed of, or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law;
2. “Hazardous wastes” means wastes as specified in Article 2 of this Convention;
3. “Management” means the prevention and reduction of hazardous wastes and the collection, transport, storage, and treatment either for the reuse or disposal, of hazardous wastes including after-care of disposal sites;
4. “Transboundary movement” means any movement of hazardous wastes from an area under the national jurisdiction of any State to or through an area under the national jurisdiction of another State, or to or through an area not under the national jurisdiction of another State, provided at least two States are involved in the movement;
5. “Clean production methods” means production or industrial systems which avoid, or eliminate the generation of hazardous wastes and hazardous products in conformity with Article 4, section 3 (f) and (g) of this Convention;
6. “Disposal” means any operation specified in Annex III to this Convention;
7. “Approved site or facility” means a site or facility for the disposal of hazardous wastes which is authorised or permitted to operate for this purpose by a relevant authority of the State where the site or facility is located;
8. “Competent authority” means one governmental authority designated by a Party to be responsible, within such geographical areas as the Party may think fit, for receiving the notification of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and any information related to it, and for responding to such a notification, as provided in Article 6 of this Convention;
9. “Focal point” means the entity of a Party referred to in Article 5 of this Convention responsible for receiving and submitting information as provided for in Articles 13 and 16;
10. “Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes” means taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes;
11. “Area under the national jurisdiction of a State” means any land, marine area or airspace within which a State exercises administrative and regulatory responsibility in accordance with international law in regard to the protection of human health or the environment;
12. “State of export” means a State from which a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes is planned to be initiated or is initiated;
13. “State of import” means a State to which a transboundary movement is planned or takes place for the purpose of disposal therein or for the purpose of loading prior to disposal in an area not under the national jurisdiction of any State;
14. “State of transit” means any State, other than the State of export or import, through which a movement of hazardous wastes is planned or takes place;
15. “States concerned” means States of export or import, or transit states, whether or not Parties;
16. “Person” means any natural or legal person;
17. “Exporter” means any person under the jurisdiction of the State of export who arranges for hazardous wastes to be exported;
18. “Importer” means any person under the jurisdiction of the State of import who arranges for hazardous wastes to beimported;
19. “Carrier” means any person who carries out the transport of hazardous wastes;
20. “Generator” means any person whose activity produces hazardous wastes, or, if that person is not known, the person who is in possession and/or control of those wastes;
21. “Disposer” means any person to whom hazardous wastes are shipped and who carries out the disposal of such wastes;
22. “Illegal traffic” means any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes as specified in Article 9 of this Convention;
23. “Dumping at sea” means the deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man- made structures at sea, and includes ocean incineration and disposal into the seabed and sub-seabed.
Scope of the Convention
1. The following substances shall be “hazardous wastes” for the purposes of this convention:
(a) Wastes that belong to any category contained in Annex I of this Convention;
(b) Wastes that are not covered under paragraph (a) above but are defined as, or are considered to be, hazardous wastes by the domestic legislation of the State of import or transit;
(c) Wastes which possess any of the characteristics contained in Annex II of this Convention;
(d) Hazardous substances which have been banned, cancelled or refused registration by government regulatory action, or voluntarily withdrawn from registration in the country of manufacture, for human health or environmental reasons.
2. Wastes which, as a result of being radioactive, are subject to any international control systems, including international instruments, applying specifically to radioactive materials, are included in the scope of this Convention.
3. Wastes which derive from the normal operations of a ship, the discharge of which is covered by another international instrument, shall not fall within the scope of this convention.
National Definitions of Hazardous Wastes
1. Each State shall, within six months of becoming a Party to this Convention, inform the Secretariat of the Convention of the wastes, other than those listed in Annex I of this Convention, considered or defined as hazardous under its national legislation and of any requirements concerning transboundary movement procedures applicable to such wastes.
2. Each Party shall subsequently inform the Secretariat of any significant changes to the information it has provided pursuant to Paragraph 1 of this Article.
3. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform all Parties of the information it has received pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article.
4. Parties shall be responsible for making the information transmitted to them by the Secretariat under Paragraph 3 of this Article available to their exporters and other appropriate bodies.
1. Hazardous Waste Import Ban
All Parties shall take appropriate legal, administrative and other measures within the area under their jurisdiction to prohibit the import of all hazardous wastes, for any reason, into Africa from non-Contracting Parties. Such import shall be deemed illegal and a criminal act. All Parties shall:
(a) Forward as soon as possible, all information relating to such illegal hazardous waste import activity to the Secretariat who shall distribute the information to all Contracting Parties;
(b) Co-operate to ensure that no imports of hazardous wastes from a non-Party enter a Party to this Convention. To this end, the Parties shall, at the Conference of the Contracting Parties, consider other enforcement mechanisms.
2. Ban on Dumping of Hazardous Wastes at Sea and Internal Waters
(a) Parties in conformity with related international conventions and instruments shall, in the exercise of their jurisdiction within their internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and continental shelf, adopt legal, administrative and other appropriate measures to control all carriers from non-Parties, and prohibit the dumping at sea of hazardous wastes, including their incineration at sea and their disposal in the seabed and sub-seabed. Any dumping of hazardous wastes at sea, including incineration at sea as well as seabed and sub-seabed disposal, by Contracting Parties, whether in internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones or high seas shall be deemed to be illegal;
(b) Parties shall forward, as soon as possible, all information relating to dumping of hazardous wastes to the Secretariat which shall distribute the information to all Contracting Parties.
3. Waste Generation in Africa Each Party Shall:
(a) Ensure that hazardous waste generators submit to the Secretariat reports regarding the wastes that they generate in order to enable the Secretariat of the Convention to produce a complete hazardous waste audit;
(b) Impose strict, unlimited liability as well as joint and several liability on hazardous waste generators;
(c) Ensure that the generation of hazardous wastes within the area under its jurisdiction is reduced to a minimum taking into account social, technological and economic aspects;
(d) Ensure the availability of adequate treatment and/or disposal facilities, for the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes which shall be located, to the extent possible, within its jurisdiction;
(e) Ensure that persons involved in the management of hazardous wastes within its jurisdiction take such steps as are necessary to prevent pollution arising from such wastes and, if such pollution occurs, to minimize the consequence thereof for human health and the environment;
The Adoption of Precautionary Measures:
(f) Each Party shall strive to adopt and implement the preventive, precautionary approach to pollution problems which entails, inter-alia, preventing the release into the environment of substances which may cause harm to humans or the environment without waiting for scientific proof regarding such harm. The Parties shall co-operate with each other in taking the appropriate measures to implement the precautionary principle to pollution prevention through the application of clean production methods, rather than the pursuit of a permissible emissions approach based on assimilative capacity assumptions;
(g) In this respect Parties shall promote clean production methods applicable to entire product life cycles including:
• raw material selection, extraction and processing;
• product conceptualisation, design, manufacture and assemblage;
• materials transport during all phases;
• industrial and household usage;
• reintroduction of the product into industrial systems or nature when it no longer serves a useful function;
Clean production shall not include “end-of-pipe” pollution controls such as filters and scrubbers, or chemical, physical or biological treatment. Measures which reduce the volume of waste by incineration or concentration, mask the hazard by dilution, or transfer pollutants from one environmental medium to another, are also excluded;
(h) The issue of preventing the transfer to Africa of polluting technologies shall be kept
under systematic review by the Secretariat of the Conference and periodic reports shall be made to the Conference of the Parties;
Obligations in the Transport and Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes from Contracting Parties:
(i) Each Party shall prevent the export of hazardous wastes to States which have prohibited by their legislation or international agreement all such imports, or if it has reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner, according to criteria to be decided on by the Parties at their first meeting;
(j) A Party shall not permit hazardous wastes to be exported to a State which does not have the facilities for disposing of them in an environmentally sound manner;
(k) Each Party shall ensure that hazardous wastes to be exported are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import and transit. Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes subject to this Convention shall be decided by the Parties at their first meeting;
(l) The Parties agree not to allow the export of hazardous wastes for disposal within the area South of 60 degrees South Latitude, whether or not such wastes are subject to transboundary movement;
(m) Furthermore, each Party shall:
(i) Prohibit all persons under its national jurisdiction from transporting, storing or disposing of hazardous wastes unless such persons are authorized or allowed to perform such operations;
(ii) Ensure that hazardous wastes that are to be the subject of a transboundary movement are packaged, labelled, and transported in conformity with generally accepted and recognized international rules and standards in the field of packaging, labelling, and transport, and that due account is relevant internationally recognized practices;
(iii) Ensure that hazardous wastes be accompanied by a movement document, containing information specified in Annex IV B, from the point at which a transboundary movement commences to the point of disposal;
(n) Parties shall take the appropriate measures to ensure that the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes only are allowed if:
(i) The State of export does not have the technical capacity and the necessary facilities, capacity or suitable disposal sites in order to dispose of the wastes in question in an environmentally sound and efficient manner; or
(ii) The transboundary movement in question is in accordance with other criteria to be decided by the Parties, provided those criteria do not differ from the objectives of this Convention;
(o) Under this Convention, the obligation of States in which hazardous wastes are generated, requiring that those wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner, may not under any circumstances be transferred to the States of import or transit;
(p) Parties shall undertake to review periodically the possibilities for the reduction of the amount and/or the pollution potential of hazardous wastes which are exported to other States;
(q) Parties exercising their right to prohibit the import of hazardous wastes for disposal shall inform the other Parties of their decision pursuant to Article 13 of this Convention;
(r) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes to States which have prohibited the import of such wastes, when notified by the secretariat or any competent authority pursuant to sub-paragraph (q) above;
(s) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes if the State of import does not consent in writing to the specific import, in the case where that State of import has not prohibited the import of such wastes;
(t) Parties shall ensure that the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes is reduced to the minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and efficient management of such wastes, and is conducted in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such movement;
(u) Parties shall require that information about a proposed transboundary movement of hazardous wastes be provided to the States concerned, according to Annex IV A of this Convention, and clearly state the potential effects of the proposed movement on human health and the environment.
(a) Parties shall undertake to enforce the obligations of this Convention against offenders and infringements according to relevant national laws and/or international law;
(b) Nothing in this Convention shall prevent a Party from imposing additional requirements that are consistent with the provisions of this Convention, and are in accordance with the rules of international law, in order to better protect human health and the environment;
(c) This Convention recognizes the sovereignty of States over their territorial sea, waterways, and air space established in accordance with international law, and jurisdiction which States have in their exclusive economic zone and their continental shelves in accordance with international law, and the exercise by ships and aircraft of all States of navigation rights and freedoms as provided for in international law and as reflected in relevant international instruments.
Designation of Competent Authorities, Focal Point and Dumpwatch To facilitate the implementation of this Convention, the Parties shall:
1. Designate or establish one or more competent authorities and one focal point. One competent authority shall be designated to receive the notification in case of a State of transit.
2. Inform the Secretariat, within three months of the date of the entry into force of this Convention for them, which agencies they have designated as their focal point and their competentauthorities.
3. Inform the Secretariat, within one month of the date of decision, of any changes regarding the designations made by them under paragraph 2 above.
4. Appoint a national body to act as a Dumpwatch. In such capacity as a Dumpwatch, the designated national body only will be required to co-ordinate with the concerned governmental and non-governmental bodies.
Transboundary Movement and Notification Procedures
1. The State of export shall notify, or shall require the generator or exporter to notify, in writing, through the channel of the competent authority of the State of export, the competent authority of the States concerned of any proposed transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Such notification shall contain the declarations and information specified in Annex IV A of this Convention, written in a language acceptable to the State of import. Only one notification needs to be sent to each State concerned.
2. The Party of import shall respond to the notifier in writing consenting to the movement with or without conditions, denying permission for the movement, or requesting additional information. A copy of the final response of the State of import shall be sent to the competent authorities of the States concerned that are Parties to this Convention.
3. The State of export shall not allow the transboundary movement until it has received:
(a) written consent of the State of import; and
(b) from the State of import, written confirmation of the existence of a contract between the exporter and the disposer specifying environmentally sound management of the wastes in question.
4. Each State of transit which is a Party to this Convention shall promptly acknowledge to the notifier receipt of the notification. It may subsequently respond to the notifier in writing, within 60 days, consenting to the movement with or without conditions, denying permission for the movement, or requesting additional information. The State of export shall not allow the transboundary movement to commence until it has received the written consent of the State of transit.
5. In the case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes where the wastes are legally defined as or considered to be hazardous wastes only:
(a) By the State of export, the requirements of paragraph 8 of this Article that apply to the importer or disposer and the State of import shall apply mutatis mutandis to the exporter and State of export, respectively;
(b) By the Party of import, or by the States of import and transit which are Parties to this Convention, the requirements of paragraphs 1, 3, 4 and 6 of this Article that apply to the exporter and State of export shall apply mutatis mutandis to the importer or disposer and Party of import, respectively; or
(c) By any State of transit which is a Party to this Convention, the provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article shall apply to such State.
6. The State of export shall use a shipment specific notification even where hazardous wastes having the same physical and chemical characteristics are shipped regularly to the same disposer via the same customs office of entry of the State of import, and in the case of transit, via the same customs office of entry and exit of the State or States of transit; specific notification of each and every shipment shall be required and contain the information in Annex IV A of this Convention.
7. Each Party to this Convention shall limit their points or ports of entry and notify the Secretariat to this effect for distribution to all Contracting Parties. Such points and ports shall be the only ones permitted for the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.
8. The Parties to this Convention shall require that each person who takes charge of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes sign the movement document either upon delivery or receipt of the wastes in question. They shall also require that the disposer inform both the exporter and the competent authority of the State of export of receipt by the disposer of the wastes in question and, in due course, of the completion of disposal as specified in the notification. If no such information is received within the State of export, the competent authority of the State of export or the exporter shall so notify the State of import.
9. The notification and response required by this Article shall be transmitted to the competent authority of the States concerned.
10. Any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes shall be covered by insurance, bond or other guarantee as may be required by the State of import, or any State of transit which is a Party to this Convention.
Transboundary Movement from a Party through States which are not Parties
Paragraph 2 and 4 of Article 6 of this Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to transboundary movements of hazardous wastes from a Party through a State or States which are not Parties.
Duty to Re-import
When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner within a maximum of 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat. To this end, the State of export and any State of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those waste to the State of export.
Article 9 Illegal traffic
1. For the purpose of this Convention, any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes under the following situations shall be deemed to be illegal traffic:
(a) if carried out without notification, pursuant to the provisions of this Convention, to all States concerned; or
(b) if carried out without the consent, pursuant to the provisions of this Convention, of a State concerned; or
(c) if consent is obtained from States concerned through falsification, misrepresentation or fraud; or
(d) if it does not conform in a material way with the documents;
(e) if it results in deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes in contravention of this Convention and of general principles of international law.
2. Each Party shall introduce appropriate national legislation for imposing criminal penalties on all persons who have planned, carried out, or assisted in such illegal imports. Such penalties shall be sufficiently high to both punish and deter such conduct.
3. In case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes deemed to be illegal traffic as the result of conduct on the part of the exporter or generator, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back by the exporter or generator or if necessary by itself into the State of export, within 30 days from the time the State of export has been informed about the illegal traffic. To this end the States concerned shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export and appropriate legal action shall be taken against the contravenor(s).
4. In the case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes deemed to be illegal traffic as the result of conduct on the part of the importer or disposer, the State of import shall ensure that the wastes in question are returned to the exporter by the importer and that legal proceedings according to the provisions of this Convention are taken against the contravenor(s).
1. The Parties to this Convention shall co-operate with one another and with relevant African
organizations, to improve and achieve the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes.
2. To this end, the Parties shall:
(a) Make available information, whether on a bilateral or multilateral basis, with a view to promoting clean production methods and the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including harmonization of technical standards and practices for the adequate management of hazardous wastes;
(b) Co-operate in monitoring the effects of the management of hazardous wastes on human health and the environment;
(c) Co-operate, subject to their national laws, regulations and policies, in the development and implementation of new environmentally sound clean production technologies and the improvement of existing technologies with a view to eliminating, as far as practicable, the generation of hazardous wastes and achieving more effective and efficient methods of ensuring their management in an environmentally sound manner, including the study of the economic, social and environmental effects of the adoption of such new and improved technologies;
(d) Co-operate actively, subject to their national laws, regulations and policies, in the transfer of technology and management systems related to the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes. They shall also co-operate in developing the technical capacity among Parties, especially those which may need and request technical assistance in this field;
(e) Co-operate in developing appropriate technical guidelines and/or codes of practice;
(f) Co-operate in the exchange and dissemination of information on the movement of hazardous wastes in conformity with Article 13 of this Convention.
Bilateral, Multilateral and Regional Agreements
1. Parties to this Convention may enter into bilateral, multilateral, or regional agreements or arrangements regarding the transboundary movement and management of hazardous wastes generated in Africa with Parties or non-Parties provided that such agreements or arrangements do not derogate from the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes as required by this Convention. These agreements or arrangements shall stipulate provisions which are no less environmentally sound than those provided for by this Convention.
2. Parties shall notify the Secretariat of any bilateral, multilateral or regional agreements or arrangements referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article and those which they have entered into prior to the entry into force of this Convention for them, for the purpose of controlling transboundary movements of hazardous wastes which take place entirely among the Parties to such agreements. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect transboundary movements of hazardous wastes generated in Africa which take place pursuant to such agreements provided that such agreements are compatible with the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes as required by this Convention.
3. Each Contracting Party shall prohibit vessels flying its flag or aircraft registered in its territory from carrying out activities in contravention of this Convention.
4. Parties shall use appropriate measures to promote South-South co-operation in the implementation of this Convention.
5. Taking into account the needs of developing countries, cooperation between international organizations is encouraged in order to promote, among other things, public awareness, the development of rational management of hazardous waste, and the adoption of new and non/less polluting technologies.
Liabilities and Compensation
The Conference of Parties shall set up an Ad Hoc expert organ to prepare a draft Protocol setting out appropriate rules and procedures in the field of liabilities and compensation for damage resulting from the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.
Transmission of Information
1. The Parties shall ensure that in the case of an accident occurring during the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or their disposal which is likely to present risks to human health and the environment in other States, those States are immediately informed.
2. The States shall inform each other, through the Secretariat, of:
(a) Changes regarding the designation of competent authorities and/or focal points, pursuant to Article 5 of this Convention;
(b) Changes in their national definition of hazardous wastes, pursuant to Article 3 of this Convention;
(c) Decisions made by them to limit or ban the import of hazardous wastes;
(d) Any other information required pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article.
3. The Parties, consistent with national laws and regulations, shall set up information collection and dissemination mechanisms on hazardous wastes. They shall transmit such information through the Secretariat, to the Conference of the Parties established under Article 15 of this Convention, before the end of each calendar year, in a report on the previous calendar year, containing the following information:
(a) Competent authorities, Dumpwatch, and focal points that have been designated by them pursuant to Article 5 of this Convention;
(b) Information regarding transboundary movements of hazardous wastes in which they have been involved, including:
(i) The quantity of hazardous wastes exported, their category, characteristics, destination, any transit country and disposal method as stated in the notification;
(ii) The amount of hazardous wastes imported, their category, characteristics, origin, and disposal methods;
(iii) Disposals which did not proceed as intended;
(iv) Efforts to achieve a reduction of the amount of hazardous wastes subject to transboundary movement;
(c) Information on the measures adopted by them in the implementation of this Convention;
(d) Information on available qualified statistics – which have been compiled by them on the effects on human health and the environment of the generation, transportation, and disposal of hazardous wastes – as part of the information required in conformity with Article 4 Section 3 (a) of this Convention;
(e) Information concerning bilateral, multilateral and regional agreements and arrangements entered into pursuant to Article 11 of this Convention;
(f) Information on accidents occurring during the transboundary movements, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and on the measures undertaken to deal with them;
(g) Information on treatment and disposal options operated within the area under their national jurisdiction;
(h) Information on measures undertaken for the development of clean production methods, including clean production technologies, for the reduction and/or elimination of the production of hazardous wastes; and
(i) Such other matters as the Conference of the Parties shall deem relevant.
4. The Parties, consistent with national laws and regulations, shall ensure that copies of each notification concerning any given transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, and the response to it, are sent to the Secretariat.
Article 14 Financial Aspects
1. The regular budget of the Conference of Parties, as required in Article 15 and 16 of this Convention, shall be prepared by the Secretariat and approved by the Conference.
2. Parties shall, at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties, agree on a scale of contributions to the recurrent budget of the Secretariat.
3. The Parties shall also consider the establishment of a revolving fund to assist, on an interim basis, in case of emergency situations to minimize damage from disasters or accidents arising from transboundary movements of hazardous wastes or during the disposal of such wastes.
4. The Parties agree that, according to the specific needs of different regions and sub-regions, regional or sub-regional centres for training and technology transfers regarding the management of hazardous wastes and the minimization of their generation should be established, as well as appropriate funding mechanisms of a voluntary nature.
Conference of the Parties
1. A Conference of the Parties, made up of Ministers having the environment as their mandate, is hereby established. The first meeting of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the OAU not later than one year after the entry into force of this Convention.
Thereafter, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals to be determined by the Conference at its first meeting.
2. The Conference of the Parties to this Convention shall adopt Rules of Procedure for itself and for any subsidiary body it may establish, as well as financial rules to determine in particular the financial participation of the Parties to this Convention.
3. The Parties to this Convention at their first meeting shall consider any additional measures needed to assist them in fulfilling their responsibilities with respect to the protection and the preservation of the marine and inland waters environments in the context of this Convention.
4. The Conference of the Parties shall keep under continued review and evaluation the effective implementation of this Convention, and in addition, shall:
(a) promote the harmonization of appropriate policies, strategies and measures for minimizing harm to human health and the environment by hazardous wastes;
(b) consider and adopt amendments to this Convention and its annexes, taking into consideration, inter alia, available scientific, technical, economic and environmental information;
(c) consider and undertake any additional action that may be required for the achievement of the purpose of this Convention in the light of experience gained in its operation and in the operation of the agreements and arrangements envisaged in
Article 11 of this Convention;
(d) consider and adopt protocols as required;
(e) establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of this Convention; and
(f) make decisions for the peaceful settlement of disputes arising from the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, if need be, according to international law.
5. Organizations may be represented as observers at meetings of the Conference of the Parties. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, qualified in fields relating to hazardous wastes which has informed the Secretariat, may be represented as an observer at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
1. The functions of the Secretariat shall be:
(a) To arrange for, and service, meetings provided for in Article 15 and 17 of this Convention;
(b) To prepare and transmit reports based upon information received in accordance with Articles 3, 4, 6, 11, and 13 of this Convention as well as upon information derived from meetings of subsidiary bodies established under Article 15 of this Convention as well as upon, as appropriate, information provided by relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental entities;
(c) To prepare reports on its activities carried out in the implementation of its functions under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties;
(d) To ensure the necessary co-ordination with relevant international bodies, and in particular to enter into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions;
(e) To communicate with focal points, competent authorities and Dumpwatch established by the Parties in accordance with Article 5 of this Convention as well as appropriate inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations which may provide assistance in the implementation of this Convention;
(f) To compile information concerning approved national sites and facilities of Parties to this Convention available for the disposal and treatment of their hazardous wastes and to circulate this information;
(g) To receive and convey information from and to Parties on:
• sources of technical assistance and training;
• available technical and scientific know-how;
• sources of advice and expertise; and
• availability of resources;
This information will assist them in,
• the management of the notification system of this Convention;
• the management of hazardous wastes;
• environmentally sound clean production methods relating to
• hazardous wastes, such as clean production technologies;
• the assessment of disposal capabilities and sites;
• the monitoring of hazardous wastes; and
• emergency responses;
(h) To provide Parties to this Convention with information on consultants or consulting firms having the necessary technical competence in the field, which can assist them with examining a notification for a transboundary movement, the concurrence of a shipment of hazardous wastes with the relevant notification, and/or whether the proposed disposal facilities for hazardous wastes are environmentally sound, when they have reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner. Any such examinations would not be at the expense of the Secretariat;
(i) To assist Parties to this Convention in their identification of cases of illegal traffic and to circulate immediately to the Parties concerned any information it has received regarding illegal traffic;
(j) To co-operate with Parties to this Convention and with relevant and competent international organizations and agencies in the provision of experts and equipment for the purpose of rapid assistance to States in the event of an emergency situation; and
(k) To perform such other functions relevant to the purposes of this Convention as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties to this Convention.
2. The Secretariat’s functions shall be carried out on an interim basis by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) until the completion of the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties held pursuant to Article 15 of this Convention. At this meeting, the Conference of the Parties shall also evaluate the implementation by the interim Secretariat of the functions assigned to it, in particular under paragraph 1 above, and decide upon the structures appropriate for those functions.
Amendment of the Convention and of Protocols
1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Convention and any Party to a Protocol may propose amendments to that Protocol. Such amendments shall take due account, inter alia, of relevant scientific, technical, environmental and social considerations.
2. Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Amendments to any Protocol shall be adopted at a meeting of the Parties to the Protocol in question. The text of any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any Protocol, except as
may otherwise be provided in such Protocol, shall be communicated to the Parties by the Secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the Signatories to this Convention for their information.
3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to this Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. It shall then be submitted by the Depository to all Parties for ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance.
Amendment of Protocols to this Convention
4. The procedure specified in paragraph 3 above shall apply to amendments to any protocol, except that a two-thirds majority of the Parties to that Protocol present and voting at the meeting shall suffice for their adoption.
5. Instruments of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance of amendments shall be deposited with the Depository. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 or 4 above shall enter into force between Parties having accepted them, on the ninetieth day after the receipt by the Depository of the instrument of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance by at least two-thirds of the Parties who accepted the amendments to the Protocol concerned, except as may otherwise be provided in such Protocol. The amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after that Party deposits its instrument of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance of the amendments.
6. For the purpose of this Article, “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
Adoption and Amendment of Annexes
1. The annexes to this Convention or to any Protocol shall form an integral part of this Convention or of such Protocol, as the case may be and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or its Protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to scientific, technical and administrative matters.
2. Except as may be otherwise provided in any Protocol with respect to its annexes, the following procedures shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention or of annexes to a protocol:
(a) Annexes to this Convention and its Protocols shall be proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in Article 17, paragraphs 1, 2, 3, and 4 of this Convention;
(b) Any Party that is unable to accept an additional annex to this Convention or an annex to any Protocol to which it is Party shall so notify the Depository, in writing, within six months from the date of the communication of the adoption by the Depository. The Depository shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Party may at any time substitute an acceptance for a previous declaration of objection and the annexes shall thereupon enter into force for that Party;
(c) Upon the expiration of six months from the date of the circulation of the communication by the Depository, the annex shall become effective for all Parties to this Convention or to any Protocol concerned, which have not submitted a notification in accordance with the provision of sub-paragraph (b) above.
3. The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to this Convention or to any Protocol shall be subject to the same procedure as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention or annexes to a Protocol. Annexes and amendments thereto shall take due account, inter alia, of relevant scientific and technical considerations.
4. If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to this Convention or to any Protocol, the additional annex or amended annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to this Convention or to the Protocol enters into force.
Article 19 Verification
Any Party which has reason to believe that another Party is acting or has acted in breach of its obligations under this Convention must inform the Secretariat thereof, and in such an event, shall simultaneously and immediately inform, directly or through the Secretariat, the Party against whom the allegations are made. The Secretariat shall carry out a verification of the substance of the allegation and submit a report thereof to all the Parties to this Convention.
Settlement of Disputes
1. In case of dispute between Parties as to the interpretation or application of, or compliance with, this Convention or any Protocol thereto, the Parties shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiations or any other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. If the Parties concerned cannot settle their dispute as provided in paragraph 1 of this Article, the dispute shall be submitted either to an Ad Hoc organ set up by the Conference for this purpose, or to the International Court of Justice.
3. The conduct of arbitration of disputes between Parties by the Ad Hoc organ provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be as provided in Annex V of this Convention.
Article 21 Signature
This Convention shall be open for signature by Member States of the OAU in Bamako and Addis Ababa for a period of six months from 30 January 1991 to 31 July 1991.
Ratification, Acceptance, Formal Confirmation or Approval
1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, formal confirmation, or approval by Member States of the OAU. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, formal confirmation, or approval shall be deposited with the Depository.
2. Parties shall be bound by all obligations of this Convention.
This Convention shall be open for accession by member States of the OAU from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depository.
Right to Vote
Each Contracting Party to this Convention shall have one vote.
Article 25 Entry into Force
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification from Parties signatory to this Convention.
2. For each State which ratifies this Convention or accedes thereto after the date of the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, it shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State of its instrument of accession or ratification.
Reservations and Declarations
1. No reservations or exception may be made to this Convention.
2. Paragraph 1 of this Article does not preclude a State when signing, ratifying, or acceding to this Convention, from making declarations or statements, however phrased or named, with a view, inter alia, to the harmonization of its laws and regulations with the provisions of this Convention, provided that such declarations or statements do not purport to exclude or to modify the legal effects of the provisions of the Convention in their application to that State.
Article 27 Withdrawal
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depository.
2. Withdrawal shall be effective one year after receipt of notification by the Depository, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification.
3. Withdrawal shall not exempt the withdrawing Party from fulfilling any obligations it might have incurred under this Convention.
Article 28 Depository
The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity shall be the Depository for this Convention and of any Protocol thereto.
Article 29 Registration
This Convention, as soon as it enters into force, shall be registered with the Secretary-General of the United Nations Organization (UNO) in conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the UNO.
Article 30 Authentic Texts
The Arabic, English, French and Portuguese texts of this Convention are equally authentic.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.
Adopted in Bamako, Mali, on 30 January 1991. ANNEX I
CATEGORIES OF WASTES WHICH ARE HAZARDOUS WASTES Waste Streams:
Y0 All wastes containing or contaminated by radionuclides, the concentration or properties of which result from human activity
Y1 Clinical wastes from medical care in hospitals, medical centers and clinics
Y2 Wastes from the production and preparation of pharmaceutical products
Y3 Waste pharmaceuticals, drugs and medicines
Y4 Wastes from the production, formulation and use of biocides and phytopharmaceuticals
Y5 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation and use of wood preserving chemicals
Y6 Wastes from the production, formulation and use of organic solvents
Y7 Wastes from heat treatment and tempering operations containing cyanides
Y8 Waste mineral oils unfit for their originally intended use
Y9 Waste oils/water, hydrocarbons/water mixtures, emulsions
Y10 Waste substances and articles containing or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and/or polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) and/or polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
Y11 Waste tarry residues arising from refining, distillation andany pyrolytic treatment
Y12 Wastes from production, formulation and use of inks, dyes, pigments, paints, lacquers, varnish
Y13 Wastes from production, formulation and use latex, plasticizers, glues/adhesives
Y14 Waste chemical substances arising from research and development or teaching activities which are not identified and/or are new and whose effects on man and/or the environment are not known
Y15 Wastes of an explosive nature not subject to other legislation
Y16 Wastes from production, formulation and use of photographic chemicals and processing materials
Y17 Wastes resulting from surface treatment of metals and plastics residues arising from industrial waste disposal operations
Y18 Wastes collected from households, including sewage and sewage sludges
Y47 Residues arising from the incineration of household wastes Wastes having as constituents: Y19 Metal carbonyls Y20 Beryllium; beryllium compounds Y21 Hexavalent chromium compounds Y22 Copper compounds Y23 Zinc compounds Y24 Arsenic; arsenic compounds Y25 Selenium; selenium compounds Y26 Cadmium; cadmium compounds Y27 Antimony; antimony compounds Y28 Tellurium; tellurium compounds Y29 Mercury; mercury compounds Y30 Thallium; thallium compounds Y31 Lead; lead compounds
Y32 Inorganic fluorine compounds excluding calcium fluoride
Y33 Inorganic cyanides
Y34 Acidic solutions or acids in solid form
Y35 Basic solutions or bases in solid form
Y36 Asbestos (dust and fibres)
Y37 Organic phosphorous compounds
Y38 Organic cyanides
Y39 Phenols; phenol compounds including chlorophenols
Y41 Halogenated organic solvents Y42 Organic solvents excluding halogenated solvents Y43 Any congener of polychlorinated dibenzo-furan Y44 Any congener of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
Y45 Organohalogen compounds other than substances referred to in this Annex (e.g., Y39, Y41, Y42, Y43, Y44).
LIST OF HAZARDOUS CHARACTERISTICS
* Corresponds to the hazardous classification system included in the United Nations Recommendations on the transport of Dangerous Goods (ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.5, United Nations, New York, 1988).
|UN Class*||Code Characteristics|
|1||1 H1 ExplosiveAn explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction or producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.|
|3||H3 Flammable liquidsThe word “flammable” has the same meaning as “inflammable”. Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc., but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60.5 degrees C, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.6 degrees C, open-cup test. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of|
|closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable, regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such difference would be within the spirit of this definition).|
|4.1||H4.1 Flammable solidsSolids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.|
|4.2||H4.2 Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustionSubstances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up on contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire.|
|4.3||H4.3 Substances or wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gasesSubstances or wastes which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities.|
|5.1||H5.1 OxidizingSubstances or wastes which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other materials.|
|5.2||H5.2 Organic peroxidesOrganic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-O- O-structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic self accelerating decomposition.|
|6.1||H6.1 Poisonous (Acute)Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact.|
|6.2||6H6.2 Infectious substances|
|Substances or wastes containing viable micro organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans.|
|8||H8 CorrosivesSubstances or wastes which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue, or in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport; they may also cause other hazards.|
|9||H10 Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or waterSubstances or wastes which, by interaction with air or water, are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities.H11 Toxic (Delayed or chronic)Substances or wastes which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve delayed or chronic effects, including carcinogenicity.H12 EcotoxicSubstances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems.H13 Capable, by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.|
D1 Deposit into or onto land, (e.g., landfill, etc.)
D2 Land treatment, (e.g., biodegradation of liquid or sludgy discards in soils, etc.)
D3 Deep injection, (e.g., injection of pumpable discards into wells, salt domes or naturally occurring repositories, etc.)
D4 Surface impoundment, (e.g., placement of liquid or sludge discards into pits, ponds, or lagoons, etc.)
D5 Specially engineered landfill, (e.g., placement into lined discrete cells which are capped and isolated from one another and the environment, etc.)
D6 Release into a water body except seas/oceans
D7 Release into seas/oceans including sea-bed insertion
D8 Biological treatment not specified elsewhere in this Annex which results in final compounds or mixtures which are discarded by means of any of the operations in Annex III
D9 Physico-chemical treatment not specified elsewhere in this Annex which results in final compounds or mixtures which are discarded by means of any of the operations in Annex III, (e.g., evaporation, drying, calcination, neutralisation, precipitation, etc.)
D10 Incineration on land
D11 Incineration at sea
D12 Permanent storage, (e.g., emplacement of containers in a mine, etc.) D13 Blending or mixing prior to submission to any of the operations in Annex III D14 Repackaging prior to submission to any of the operations in Annex III D15 Storage pending any of the operations in Annex III
D16 Use as a fuel (other than in direct incineration) or other means to generate energy D17 Solvent reclamation/regeneration
D18 Recycling/reclamation of organic substances which are not used as solvents
D19 Recycling/reclamation of metals and metal compounds
D20 Recycling/reclamation of other inorganic materials
D21 Regeneration of acids and bases
D22 Recovery of components used for pollution abatement
D23 Recovery of components from catalysts D24 Used oil re-refining or other reuses of previously used oil D25 Land treatment resulting in benefit to agriculture or ecological improvement D26 Uses of residual materials obtained from any of the operations numbered D1-D25 D27 Exchange of wastes for submission to any of the operations numbered D1-D26 D28 Accumulation of material intended for any operation in Annex III ANNEX IV A
INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED ON NOTIFICATION
1. Reason for waste export
2. Exporter of the waste 1
3. Generator(s) of the waste and site of generation 1
4. Importer and Disposer of the waste and actual site of disposal 1
5. Intended carrier(s) of the waste or their agents, if known 1
6. Country of export of the waste Competent authority
7. Countries of transit Competent authority
8. Country of import of the waste Competent authority
9. Projected date of shipment and period of time over which waste is to be exported and proposed itinerary (including point of entry and exit)
10. Means of transport envisaged (road, rail, sea, air, inland waters)
11. Information relating to insurance
12. Designation and physical description of the waste including Y number and UN number and its composition 4/ and information on any special handling requirements including emergency provisions in case of accidents.
13. Type of packaging envisaged (e.g., bulk, drummer, tanker)
14. Estimated quantity in weight/volume
15. Process by which the waste is generated 5
16. Waste classifications from Annex II of this Convention: Hazardous characteristics, H number, and UN class.
17. Method of disposal as per Annex III of this Convention.
18. Declaration by the generator and exporter that the information is correct.
19. Information transmitted (including technical description of the plant) to the exporter or generator from the disposer of the waste upon which the latter has based his assessment that there was no reason to believe that the wastes will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner in accordance with the laws and regulations of the country of import.
20. Information concerning the contract between the exporter and disposer.
1 Full name and address, telephone, telex or telefax number and the name, address, telephone,
telex, or telefax number of the person to be contacted.
Full name and address, telephone, telex or telefax number.
Information to be provided on relevant insurance requirements and how they are met by exporter, carrier, and disposer.
4 The nature and the concentration of the most hazardous components, in terms of toxicity and other dangers presented by the waste both in handling and in relation to the proposed disposal method.
5 Insofar as this is necessary to assess the hazard and determine the appropriateness of the proposed disposal operation.
ANNEX IV B
INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED ON THE MOVEMENT DOCUMENT
1. Exporter of the waste 1
2. Generator(s) of the waste and site of generation 1
3. Disposer of the waste and actual site of disposal 1
4. Carrier(s) of the waste 1/ or his agent(s)
5. The date the transboundary movement started and date(s) and signature on receipt by each person who takes charge of the waste
6. Means of transport (road, rail, inland waterway, sea, air) including countries of export, transit and import, also point of entry and exit where these have been designated
7. General description of the waste (physical state, proper UN shipping name and class, UN number, r number and H number as applicable)
8. Information on special handling requirements including emergency provisions in case of accidents
9. Type and number of packages
10. Quantity in weight/volume
11. Declaration by the generator or exporter that the information
12. Declaration by the generator or exporter indicating no objection from the competent authorities of all States concerned
13. Certification by disposer of receipt at designated disposal facility and indication of method of disposal and of the appropriate date of disposal.
The information required on the movement document shall where possible be integrated into one document with that required under transport rules. Where this is not possible, the information should complement rather than duplicate that required under the transport rules. The movement document shall carry instructions as to who is to provide information and fillout any form.
1 Full name and address, telephone, telex or telefax number and the name, address, telephone, telex or telefax number of the person to be contacted in case of emergency.
ANNEX V ARBITRATION Article 1
Unless the agreement referred to in Article 20 of the Convention provides otherwise, the arbitration procedure shall be conducted in accordance with Articles 2 to 10 below.
The claimant Party shall notify the Secretariat that the Parties have agreed to submit the dispute to arbitration pursuant to paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 of Article 20 of this Convention and include, in particular, the Articles of the Convention, and the interpretation or application of which are at issue. The Secretariat shall forward the information thus received to all Parties to the Convention.
The arbitral tribunal shall consist of three members. Each of the Parties to the dispute shall appoint an arbitrator, and the two arbitrators 80 appointed shall designate by common agreement the third arbitrator, who shall be the chairman of the tribunal. The latter shall not be a national of one of the parties to the dispute, nor have his usual place of residence in one of the Parties, nor be employed by any of them, nor have dealt with the case in any other capacity.
1. If the chairman of the arbitral tribunal has not been designated within two months of the appointment of the second arbitrator, the Secretary-General of the OAU shall, at the request of either Party, designate him within a further two months period.
2. If one of the Parties to the dispute does not appoint an arbitrator within two months of the receipt of the request, the other Party may inform the Secretary-General of the OAU who shall designate the chairman of the arbitral tribunal within a further two months period. Upon designation, the chairman of the arbitral tribunal shall request the Party which has not appointed an arbitrator to do 80 within two months. After such period, he shall inform the Secretary-General of the OAU who shall make this appointment within a further two month’s period.
1. The arbitral tribunal shall render its decision in accordance with international law and in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
2. Any arbitral tribunal constituted under the provisions of this Annex shall draw up its own rules of procedure.
1. The decisions of the arbitral tribunal both on procedure and on substance, shall be taken by majority vote of its members.
2. The tribunal may take all appropriate measures in order to establish the facts. It may, at the request of Parties, recommend essential interim measures of protection.
3. The Parties to the dispute shall provide all facilities necessary for the effective conduct of the proceedings.
4. The absence or default of a Party in the dispute shall not constitute an impediment to the proceedings.
The tribunal may hear and determine counter-claims arising directly out of the subject-matter of the dispute.
Unless the arbitral tribunal determines otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the expenses of the tribunal, including the remuneration of its members, shall be borne by the Parties to the dispute in equal shares. The tribunal shall keep a record of all its expenses, and shall furnish a final statement thereof to the Parties.
Any Party that has an interest of a legal nature in the subject- matter of the dispute which may be affected by the decision in the case, may intervene in the proceedings with the consent of the tribunal.
1. The tribunal shall render its award within five months of the date on which it is established unless it finds it necessary to extend the time-limit for a period which should not exceed five months.
2. The award of the arbitral tribunal shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons. It shall be final and binding upon the Parties to the dispute.
3. Any dispute which may arise between the Parties concerning the interpretation or execution of the award may be submitted by either Party to the arbitral tribunal which made the award or, if the latter cannot be seized thereof, to another tribunal. constituted for this purpose in the same manner as the first.
Adopted by the Conference of Environment Ministers at Bamako, Mali, 30 January 1991 ALGERIA ANGOLA BENIN BOTSWANA BURRINA FASO BURUNDI CAMEROON CAPE VERDE
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
EQUATORIAL GUINEA ETHIOPIA
GABON GAMBIA GHANA GUINEA
GUINEA BISSAU KENYA LESOTHO LIBERIA
SOCIALIST PEOPLE’S LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA
SAHRAWI ARAB DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE